In a network that already includes load balancing (either with load balancers or routers) for traffic redundancy, two or more FortiGates can be integrated into the load balancing configuration using the FortiGate Session Life Support Protocol (FGSP). The external load balancers or routers can distribute sessions among the FortiGates and the FGSP performs session synchronization of IPv4 and IPv6 TCP, SCTP, UDP, ICMP, expectation, and NAT sessions and IPsec tunnels to keep the session tables of the FortiGates synchronized. If one of the FortiGates fails, session failover occurs and active sessions fail over to the peer FortiGates that are still operating. This failover occurs without any loss of data. As well, the external routers or load balancers will detect the failover and re-distribute all sessions to the peers that are still operating.
The FortiGates operate as peers that process traffic and synchronize sessions. An FGSP deployment can include 2 to 4 standalone FortiGates, or 2 to 4 FortiGate FGCP clusters of 2 members each. Adding more FortiGates increases the CPU and memory required to keep all of the FortiGates synchronized. So depending on your network conditions, adding too many FortiGates to an FGSP deployment may reduce overall performance.
The FortiGates in the FGSP deployment must be the same model and be running the same firmware version. You use the
config system cluster-sync command to configure FGSP between the FortiGates and the
config system ha command to configure what is synchronized.
|In previous versions of FortiOS the FGSP was called TCP session synchronization or standalone session synchronization. The FGSP has been expanded to include the synchronization of connectionless sessions, expectation sessions, and NAT sessions and IPsec tunnels.|
The FGSP can be used instead of FGCP to provide session synchronization between two peer FortiGates. If the external load balancers direct all sessions to one peer the effect is similar to active-passive FGCP HA. If external load balancers or routers load balance traffic to both peers, the effect is similar to active-active FGCP HA. The load balancers should be configured so that all of the packets for any given session are processed by the same peer. This includes return packets.
By default, FGSP synchronizes all IPv4 and IPv6 TCP sessions, and IPsec tunnels.
You can optionally enable session pickup to synchronize connectionless (UDP and ICMP) sessions, expectation sessions, and NAT sessions. If you do not enable session pickup, the FGSP does not share session tables for the particular session type and sessions do not resume after a failover. All sessions are interrupted by the failover and must be re-established at the application level. Many protocols can successfully restart sessions with little, or no, loss of data. Others may not recover easily. Enable session pickup for sessions that may be difficult to reestablish. Since session pickup requires FortiGate memory and CPU resources, only enable this feature for sessions that you need to have synchronized.
The synchronization link is set up in the same way as FGCP heartbeat interfaces. You must connect the synchronization link interfaces together and use the heartbeat device (hbdev) option to add the heartbeat devices to the configuration.
You can also optionally add filters to control which sessions are synchronized. You can add filters to only synchronize packets from specified source and destination addresses, specified source and destination interfaces, and specified services.
Load balancing and session failover is done by external routers or load balancers instead of by the FGSP. The FortiGates only perform session synchronization to support session failover.