Secure connections (SSL/TLS) : How to offload HTTPS : Uploading trusted CAs’ certificates
Uploading trusted CAs’ certificates
In order for FortiADC to be able to verify the CA’s signature on client’s certificates when they connect, the CA’s certificate must exist in the FortiADC’s trusted CA certificate store.
You must either:
upload the certificates of the signing CA and all intermediary CAs to FortiADC’s store of CA certificates
in all personal certificates, include the full signing chain up to a CA that FortiADC knows in order to prove that the clients’ certificates should be trusted
To harden security, configure FortiADC with an OCSP server or regularly update its CRL file in order to immediately revoke a CA’s certificate if has been compromised. See “Revoking certificates”.
In order to authenticate other devices’ certificates, FortiADC has a store of trusted CAs’ certificates. Until you upload at least one CA certificate, FortiADC does not know and trust any CAs, it cannot validate any other client or device’s certificate, and all of those secure connections will fail.
Certificate authorities (CAs) validate and sign others’ certificates. When FortiADC needs to know whether a client or device’s certificate is genuine, it will examine the CA’s signature, comparing it with the copy of the CA’s certificate that you have uploaded in order to determine if they were both made using the same private key. If they were, the CA’s signature is genuine, and therefore the client or device’s certificate is legitimate.
If the signing CA is not known, that CA’s own certificate must likewise be signed by one or more other intermediary CAs, until both the FortiADC appliance and the client or device can demonstrate a signing chain that ultimately leads to a mutually trusted (shared “root”) CA that they have in common. Like a direct signature by a known CA, this proves that the certificate can be trusted. For information on how to include a signing chain, see “Configuring FortiADC to validate certificates” and “Uploading a server certificate”.
To upload a CA’s certificate to FortiADC
1. Obtain a copy of your CA’s certificate file.
If you are using a commercial CA, your web browser should already contain a copy in its CA trust store. Export a copy of the file to your desktop or other folder.
If you are using your own private CA, download a copy from your CA’s server. For example, on Windows Server 2003, you would go to:
where <ca-server_ipv4> is the IP address of your CA server. Log in as Administrator. (Other accounts may not have sufficient privileges.) The Microsoft Certificate Services home page for your server’s CA should appear.
Verify that your private CA’s certificate does not contain its private keys. Disclosure of private keys compromises the security of your network, and will require you to revoke and regenerate all certificates signed by that CA.
2. Go to System > Certificates > CA.
You can click View Certificate Detail to view the selected certificate’s subject, range of dates within which the certificate is valid, version number, serial number, and extensions.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator's account access profile must have Read-Write permission to items in the System category. For details, see “Permissions”.
3. To upload a certificate, click Import.
A dialog appears.
4. To select a certificate, either:
Select SCEP and in the field to the right of it, type the URL of the applicable Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol server. (SCEP allows routers and other intermediary network devices to obtain certificates.)
To specify a specific CA, type an identifier in the field below the URL.
Select File and browse to find a certificate file.
5. Click Import.
6. Go to System > Certificates > CA Group.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator's account access profile must have Read-Write permission to items in the System category. For details, see “Permissions”.
7. Click Add.
A dialog appears.
8. In Name, type a name that can be referenced by other parts of the configuration. Do not use spaces or special characters. The maximum length is 35 characters.
9. Click Save.
10. Click Add.
A dialog appears.
11. In ID, enter the index number of the host entry within the group, or keep the field’s default value of 0 to let the FortiADC appliance automatically assign the next available index number.
12. In CA, select the name of a certificate authority’s certificate that you previously uploaded and want to add to the group.
13. Click OK.
14. Repeat the previous steps for each CA that you want to add to the group.
15. To apply a CA group, select it in a certificate verification rule (see “Configuring FortiADC to validate certificates”).
16. To test your configuration, cause your appliance to initiate a secure connection to an OSCP server.
If the query fails, verify that your CA is the same one that signed the server’s certificate, and that its certificate’s extensions indicate that the certificate can be used to sign other certificates. Verify that both the appliance and server support the same cipher suites and SSL/TLS protocols. Also verify that your routers and firewalls are configured to allow the connection.
See also
Configuring FortiADC to validate certificates