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> Chapter 34 - VoIP Solutions: SIP > How the SIP ALG performs NAT

How the SIP ALG performs NAT

In most Network Address Translation (NAT) configurations, multiple hosts in a private network share a single public IP address to access the Internet. For sessions originating on the private network for the Internet, NAT replaces the private IP address of the PC in the private subnet with the public IP address of the NAT device. The NAT device converts the public IP address for responses from the Internet back into the private address before sending the response over the private network to the originator of the session.

Using NAT with SIP is more complex because of the IP addresses and media stream port numbers used in SIP message headers and bodies. When a caller on the private network sends a SIP message to a phone or SIP server on the Internet, the SIP ALG must translate the private network addresses in the SIP message to IP addresses and port numbers that are valid on the Internet. When the response message is sent back to the caller, the SIP ALG must translate these addresses back to valid private network addresses.

In addition, the media streams generated by the SIP session are independent of the SIP message sessions and use varying port numbers that can also change during the media session. The SIP ALG opens pinholes to accept these media sessions, using the information in the SIP messages to determine the pinholes to open. The ALG may also perform port translation on the media sessions.

When an INVITE message is received by the SIP ALG, the FortiGate extracts addressing and port number information from the message header and stores it in a SIP dialog table. Similar to an IP session table the data in the dialog table is used to translate addresses in subsequent SIP messages that are part of the same SIP call.

When the SIP ALG receives a response to the INVITE message arrives, (for example, an ACK or 200 OK), the SIP ALG compares the addresses in the message fields against the entries in the SIP dialog table to identify the call context of the message. The SIP ALG then translates addresses in the SIP message before forwarding them to their destination.

The addressing and port number information in SDP fields is used by the ALG to reserve ports for the media session and create a NAT mapping between them and the ports in the SDP fields. Because SDP uses sequential ports for the RTP and RTCP channels, the ALG provides consecutive even-odd ports.