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> Chapter 15 - IPsec VPN > Phase 2 parameters > Basic Phase 2 settings

Phase 2 settings

After IPsec VPN Phase 1 negotiations complete successfully, Phase 2 negotiation begins. Phase 2 parameters define the algorithms that the FortiGate unit can use to encrypt and transfer data for the remainder of the session. The basic Phase 2 settings associate IPsec Phase 2 parameters with a Phase 1 configuration.

When defining Phase 2 parameters, you can choose any set of Phase 1 parameters to set up a secure connection and authenticate the remote peer.

For more information on Phase 2 settings in the web-based manager, see IPsec VPN in the web-based manager.

The information and procedures in this section do not apply to VPN peers that perform negotiations using manual keys.

Phase 2 Proposals

In Phase 2, the VPN peer or client and the FortiGate unit exchange keys again to establish a secure communication channel. The Phase 2 Proposal parameters select the encryption and authentication algorithms needed to generate keys for protecting the implementation details of Security Associations (SAs). The keys are generated automatically using a Diffie-Hellman algorithm.

Replay Detection

IPsec tunnels can be vulnerable to replay attacks. Replay Detection enables the FortiGate unit to check all IPsec packets to see if they have been received before. If any encrypted packets arrive out of order, the FortiGate unit discards them.

IKE/IPsec Extended Sequence Number (ESN) support

64-bit Extended Sequence numbers (as described in RFC 4303, RFC 4304 as an addition to IKEv1, and RFC 5996 for IKEv2.) are supported for IPsec when Replay Detection is enabled.

Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)

By default, Phase 2 keys are derived from the session key created in Phase 1. Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) forces a new Diffie-Hellman exchange when the tunnel starts and whenever the Phase 2 keylife expires, causing a new key to be generated each time. This exchange ensures that the keys created in Phase 2 are unrelated to the Phase 1 keys or any other keys generated automatically in Phase 2.

Keylife

The Keylife setting sets a limit on the length of time that a Phase 2 key can be used. The default units are seconds. Alternatively, you can set a limit on the number of kilobytes (KB) of processed data, or both. If you select both, the key expires when either the time has passed or the number of KB have been processed. When the Phase 2 key expires, a new key is generated without interrupting service.

Quick mode selectors

Quick mode selectors determine which IP addresses can perform IKE negotiations to establish a tunnel. By only allowing authorized IP addresses access to the VPN tunnel, the network is more secure.

The default settings are as broad as possible: any IP address or configured address object, using any protocol, on any port.

caution icon While the drop down menus for specifying an address also show address groups, the use of address groups may not be supported on a remote endpoint device that is not a FortiGate.

The address groups are at the bottom of the list to make it easy to distinguish between addresses and address groups.

When configuring Quick Mode selector Source address and Destination address, valid options include IPv4 and IPv6 single addresses, IPv4 subnet, or IPv6 subnet. For more information on IPv6 IPsec VPN, see Overview of IPv6 IPsec support on page 1.

There are some configurations that require specific selectors:

  • The VPN peer is a third-party device that uses specific phase2 selectors.
  • The FortiGate unit connects as a dialup client to another FortiGate unit, in which case (usually) you must specify a source IP address, IP address range, or subnet. However, this is not required if you are using dynamic routing and mode-cfg.

With FortiOS VPNs, your network has multiple layers of security, with quick mode selectors being an important line of defence.

  • Routes guide traffic from one IP address to another.
  • Phase 1 and Phase 2 connection settings ensure there is a valid remote end point for the VPN tunnel that agrees on the encryption and parameters.
  • Quick mode selectors allow IKE negotiations only for allowed peers.
  • Security policies control which IP addresses can connect to the VPN.
  • Security policies also control what protocols are allowed over the VPN along with any bandwidth limiting.
note icon FortiOS is limited with IKEv2 selector matching. When using IKEv2 with a named traffic selector, no more than 32 subnets per traffic selector are added, since FortiOS doesn't fully implement the IKEv2 selector matching rules.

The workaround is to use multiple Phase 2s. If the configuration is FGT <-> FGT, then the better alternative is to just use 0.0.0.0 <-> 0.0.0.0 and use the firewall policy for enforcement.

Using the add-route option

Consider using the add-route option to add a route to a peer destination selector. Phase 2 includes the option of allowing the add-route to automatically match the settings in Phase 1. For more information, refer to Phase 1 parameters.

Syntax

Phase 2

config vpn ipsec {phase2 | phase2-interface}

edit <name>

set add-route {phase1 | enable | disable}

end

end