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> Chapter 15 - IPsec VPN > IPsec VPN concepts > Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings

Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings

A VPN tunnel is established in two phases: Phase 1 and Phase 2. Several parameters determine how this is done. Except for IP addresses, the settings simply need to match at both VPN gateways. There are defaults that are appropriate for most cases.

FortiClient distinguishes between Phase 1 and Phase 2 only in the VPN Advanced settings and uses different terms. Phase 1 is called the IKE Policy. Phase 2 is called the IPsec Policy.

Phase 1

In Phase 1, the two VPN gateways exchange information about the encryption algorithms that they support and then establish a temporary secure connection to exchange authentication information.

When you configure your FortiGate unit or FortiClient application, you must specify the following settings for Phase 1:

Remote gateway The remote VPN gateway’s address.

FortiGate units also have the option of operating only as a server by selecting the “Dialup User” option.
Preshared key This must be the same at both ends. It is used to encrypt Phase 1 authentication information.
Local interface The network interface that connects to the other VPN gateway. This applies on a FortiGate unit only.

All other Phase 1 settings have default values. These settings mainly configure the types of encryption to be used. The default settings on FortiGate units and in the FortiClient application are compatible. The examples in this guide use these defaults.

For more detailed information about Phase 1 settings, see Phase 1 parameters.

Phase 2

Similar to the Phase 1 process, the two VPN gateways exchange information about the encryption algorithms that they support for Phase 2. You may choose different encryption for Phase 1 and Phase 2. If both gateways have at least one encryption algorithm in common, a VPN tunnel can be established. Keep in mind that more algorithms each phase does not share with the other gateway, the longer negotiations will take. In extreme cases this may cause timeouts during negotiations.

To configure default Phase 2 settings on a FortiGate unit, you need only select the name of the corresponding Phase 1 configuration. In FortiClient, no action is required to enable default Phase 2 settings.

For more detailed information about Phase 2 settings, see Phase 2 parameters.