Link failover (port monitoring or interface monitoring)
Link failover means that if a monitored interface fails, the cluster reorganizes to reestablish a link to the network that the monitored interface was connected to and to continue operating with minimal or no disruption of network traffic.
You configure monitored interfaces (also called interface monitoring or port monitoring) by selecting the interfaces to monitor as part of the cluster HA configuration.
You can monitor up to 64 interfaces.
The interfaces that you can monitor appear on the port monitor list. You can monitor all FortiGate interfaces including redundant interfaces and 802.3ad aggregate interfaces.
You cannot monitor the following types of interfaces (you cannot select the interfaces on the port monitor list):
- FortiGate interfaces that contain an internal switch.
- VLAN subinterfaces.
- IPsec VPN interfaces.
- Individual physical interfaces that have been added to a redundant or 802.3ad aggregate interface.
- FortiGate-5000 series backplane interfaces that have not been configured as network interfaces.
If you are configuring a virtual cluster you can create a different port monitor configuration for each virtual cluster. Usually for each virtual cluster you would monitor the interfaces that have been added to the virtual domains in each virtual cluster.
|Wait until after the cluster is up and running to enable interface monitoring. You do not need to configure interface monitoring to get a cluster up and running and interface monitoring will cause failovers if for some reason during initial setup a monitored interface has become disconnected. You can always enable interface monitoring once you have verified that the cluster is connected and operating properly.|
|You should only monitor interfaces that are connected to networks, because a failover may occur if you monitor an unconnected interface.|
To enable interface monitoring - GUI
Use the following steps to monitor the port1 and port2 interfaces of a cluster.
- Connect to the cluster GUI.
- Go to System > HA and edit the primary unit (Role is MASTER).
- Select the Port Monitor check boxes for the port1 and port2 interfaces and select OK.
The configuration change is synchronized to all cluster units.
To enable interface monitoring - CLI
Use the following steps to monitor the port1 and port2 interfaces of a cluster.
- Connect to the cluster CLI.
- Enter the following command to enable interface monitoring for port1 and port2.
configure system ha
set monitor port1 port2
The following example shows how to enable monitoring for the external, internal, and DMZ interfaces.
config system ha
set monitor external internal dmz
With interface monitoring enabled, during cluster operation, the cluster monitors each cluster unit to determine if the monitored interfaces are operating and connected. Each cluster unit can detect a failure of its network interface hardware. Cluster units can also detect if its network interfaces are disconnected from the switch they should be connected to.
|Cluster units cannot determine if the switch that its interfaces are connected to is still connected to the network. However, you can use remote IP monitoring to make sure that the cluster unit can connect to downstream network devices. See Remote link failover.|
Because the primary unit receives all traffic processed by the cluster, a cluster can only process traffic from a network if the primary unit can connect to it. So, if the link between a network and the primary unit fails, to maintain communication with this network, the cluster must select a different primary unit; one that is still connected to the network. Unless another link failure has occurred, the new primary unit will have an active link to the network and will be able to maintain communication with it.
To support link failover, each cluster unit stores link state information for all monitored cluster units in a link state database. All cluster units keep this link state database up to date by sharing link state information with the other cluster units. If one of the monitored interfaces on one of the cluster units becomes disconnected or fails, this information is immediately shared with all cluster units.
If a monitored interface on the primary unit fails
If a monitored interface on the primary unit fails, the cluster renegotiates to select a new primary unit using the process described in Primary unit selection. Because the cluster unit with the failed monitored interface has the lowest monitor priority, a different cluster unit becomes the primary unit. The new primary unit should have fewer link failures.
After the failover, the cluster resumes and maintains communication sessions in the same way as for a device failure. See Device failover.
If a monitored interface on a subordinate unit fails
If a monitored interface on a subordinate unit fails, this information is shared with all cluster units. The cluster does not renegotiate. The subordinate unit with the failed monitored interface continues to function in the cluster.
In an active-passive cluster after a subordinate unit link failover, the subordinate unit continues to function normally as a subordinate unit in the cluster.
In an active-active cluster after a subordinate unit link failure:
- The subordinate unit with the failed monitored interface can continue processing connections between functioning interfaces. However, the primary unit stops sending sessions to a subordinate unit that use any failed monitored interfaces on the subordinate unit.
- If session pickup is enabled, all sessions being processed by the subordinate unit failed interface that can be failed over are failed over to other cluster units. Sessions that cannot be failed over are lost and have to be restarted.
- If session pickup is not enabled all sessions being processed by the subordinate unit failed interface are lost.
How link failover maintains traffic flow
Monitoring an interface means that the interface is connected to a high priority network. As a high priority network, the cluster should maintain traffic flow to and from the network, even if a link failure occurs. Because the primary unit receives all traffic processed by the cluster, a cluster can only process traffic from a network if the primary unit can connect to it. So, if the link that the primary unit has to a high priority network fails, to maintain traffic flow to and from this network, the cluster must select a different primary unit. This new primary unit should have an active link to the high priority network.
A link failure causes a cluster to select a new primary unit
If a monitored interface on the primary unit fails, the cluster renegotiates and selects the cluster unit with the highest monitor priority to become the new primary unit. The cluster unit with the highest monitor priority is the cluster unit with the most monitored interfaces connected to networks.
After a link failover, the primary unit processes all traffic and all subordinate units, even the cluster unit with the link failure, share session and link status. In addition all configuration changes, routes, and IPsec SAs are synchronized to the cluster unit with the link failure.
In an active-active cluster, the primary unit load balances traffic to all the units in the cluster. The cluster unit with the link failure can process connections between its functioning interfaces (for, example if the cluster has connections to an internal, external, and DMZ network, the cluster unit with the link failure can still process connections between the external and DMZ networks).
Recovery after a link failover and controlling primary unit selection (controlling falling back to the prior primary unit)
If you find and correct the problem that caused a link failure (for example, re-connect a disconnected network cable) the cluster updates its link state database and re-negotiates to select a primary unit.
What happens next depends on how the cluster configuration affects primary unit selection:
- The former primary unit will once again become the primary unit (falling back to becoming the primary unit)
- The primary unit will not change.
As described in Primary unit selection and age, when the link is restored, if no options are configured to control primary unit selection and the cluster age difference is less than 300 seconds the former primary unit will once again become the primary unit. If the age differences are greater than 300 seconds then a new primary unit is not selected. Since you have no control on the age difference the outcome can be unpredictable. This is not a problem in cases where its not important which unit becomes the primary unit.
Preventing a primary unit change after a failed link is restored
Some organizations will not want the cluster to change primary units when the link is restored. Instead they would rather wait to restore the primary unit during a maintenance window. This functionality is not directly supported, but you can experiment with changing some primary unit selection settings. For example, in most cases it should work to enable override on all cluster units and make sure their priorities are the same. This should mean that the primary unit should not change after a failed link is restored.
Then, when you want to restore the original primary unit during a maintenance window you can just set its Device Priority higher. After it becomes the primary unit you can reset all device priorities to the same value. Alternatively during a maintenance window you could reboot the current primary unit and any subordinate units except the one that you want to become the primary unit.
override CLI keyword is enabled on one or more cluster units and the device priority of a cluster unit is set higher than the others, when the link failure is repaired and the cluster unit with the highest device priority will always become the primary unit.
Testing link failover
You can test link failure by disconnecting the network cable from a monitored interface of a cluster unit. If you disconnect a cable from a primary unit monitored interface the cluster should renegotiate and select one of the other cluster units as the primary unit. You can also verify that traffic received by the disconnected interface continues to be processed by the cluster after the failover.
If you disconnect a cable from a subordinate unit interface the cluster will not renegotiate.
When a FortiGate HA cluster is operating and a monitored interface fails on the primary unit, the primary unit usually becomes a subordinate unit and another cluster unit becomes the primary unit. After a link failover, the new primary unit sends gratuitous ARP packets to refresh the MAC forwarding tables (also called arp tables) of the switches connected to the cluster. This is normal link failover operation.
Even when gratuitous ARP packets are sent, some switches may not be able to detect that the primary unit has become a subordinate unit and will keep sending packets to the former primary unit. This can occur if the switch does not detect the failure and does not clear its MAC forwarding table.
You have another option available to make sure the switch detects the failover and clears its MAC forwarding tables. You can use the following command to cause a cluster unit with a monitored interface link failure to briefly shut down all of its interfaces (except the heartbeat interfaces) after the failover occurs:
config system ha
set link-failed-signal enable
Usually this means each interface of the former primary unit is shut down for about a second. When this happens the switch should be able to detect this failure and clear its MAC forwarding tables of the MAC addresses of the former primary unit and pickup the MAC addresses of the new primary unit. Each interface will shut down for a second but the entire process usually takes a few seconds. The more interfaces the FortiGate has, the longer it will take.
Normally, the new primary unit also sends gratuitous ARP packets that also help the switch update its MAC forwarding tables to connect to the new primary unit. If
link-failed-signal is enabled, sending gratuitous ARP packets is optional and can be disabled if you don’t need it or if its causing problems. See Disabling gratuitous ARP packets after a failover
Multiple link failures
Every time a monitored interface fails, the cluster repeats the processes described above. If multiple monitored interfaces fail on more than one cluster unit, the cluster continues to negotiate to select a primary unit that can provide the most network connections.
Example link failover scenarios
For the following examples, assume a cluster configuration consisting of two FortiGates (FGT_1 and FGT_2) connected to three networks: internal using port2, external using port1, and DMZ using port3. In the HA configuration, the device priority of FGT_1 is set higher than the unit priority of FGT_2.
The cluster processes traffic flowing between the internal and external networks, between the internal and DMZ networks, and between the external and DMZ networks. If there are no link failures, FGT1 becomes the primary unit because it has the highest device priority.
Sample link failover scenario topology
Example the port1 link on FGT_1 fails
If the port1 link on FGT_1 fails, FGT_2 becomes primary unit because it has fewer interfaces with a link failure. If the cluster is operating in active-active mode, the cluster load balances traffic between the internal network (port2) and the DMZ network (port3). Traffic between the Internet (port1) and the internal network (port2) and between the Internet (port1) and the DMZ network (port3) is processed by the primary unit only.
Example port2 on FGT_1 and port1 on FGT_2 fail
If port2 on FGT_1 and port1 on FGT_2 fail, then FGT_1 becomes the primary unit. After both of these link failures, both cluster units have the same monitor priority. So the cluster unit with the highest device priority (FGT_1) becomes the primary unit.
Only traffic between the Internet (port1) and DMZ (port3) networks can pass through the cluster and the traffic is handled by the primary unit only. No load balancing will occur if the cluster is operating in active-active mode.